By the time this post has been published, the Oxmail relays will most likely be using opportunistic encryption to encrypt outgoing emails, in response to actions by cloud mail providers. However, we would like to make it clear that we have always known that we had encryption disabled and that our reasons for enabling it have nothing to do with addressing privacy concerns. This post should hopefully explain all this along with some relevant history.
What is SMTP?
Simple Mail Transport Protocol is the de-facto standard for email transfer between servers. SMTP is an old standard and at its inception the internet was a happier place with less need for security and thus no security was built into the protocol. Mail delivery is via a hop by hop mechanism, which is to say that if I fire off an email to email@example.com, my mail client does not necessarily contact Fred’s mailstore directly, rather it contacts a server it thinks is better suited to deliver the mail to Fred. It is a very similar concept to 6 degrees of separation. The Oxmail relays are one hop in the chain from the sender, you at your laptop (other devices are available), and the destination server which houses the mailbox of Fred Bloggs.
What is TLS?
TLS, or Transport Layer Security to give its full name, is a mechanism by which each hop is encrypted so that eavesdroppers in the middle of the connection cannot listen in on the transfer. To be clear, routers and most firewalls are not considered endpoints in this context, it’s just the mail servers that are set up to route mail to particular destinations, and as such these routers and firewalls are exactly the devices for which this mechanism is designed to protect against.
Why did the Oxmails not encrypt mail?
I should start by saying that there was nothing inherently stopping the Oxmail relays from initiating an encrypted communication when sending mail. The software that we run is capable of encrypting communications, and in fact we require it for incoming external connections to smtp.ox.ac.uk, so as to protect password credentials from being harvested. However, we have reservations with the concept of TLS encryption for a few reasons:
- Since SMTP is a hop-by-hop protocol with an email traversing multiple servers A through to G, just because the communication between F and G is secure you know absolutely nothing about how secure your email is. For G to know that the email received is actually from A and is unaltered, every point needs to be encrypted, and yet there is no way of telling G that this is the case. All G knows is that the last hop was secure.
- As almost a repetition of the last sentence, TLS does not necessarily make communications any safer and pretending otherwise is bordering deceitful. Similarly, if the mail received by G is set to be forwarded to another mailbox H, and this is done via an encrypted channel, is that now secure?
- The battle may already be lost on this since its uptake is so small, but there is a technology that was designed to solve this: GPG. Using GPG, you encrypt the email using your laptop and only Fred can decrypt it, unlike TLS where each hop has access to every email’s contents. The truly security conscious should be using GPG to encrypt mail as only the recipient and sender can see the message. The necessary data to decrypt the message is stored locally on your computer.
To summarize these points, we did not encrypt outgoing mail as we considered it a pointless exercise that would only give people the illusion of security without actually doing anything.
Why are we now enabling opportunistic encryption on the Oxmail relays?
Following the actions of cloud service providers, where emails received unencrypted were flagged to the person reading the mail, we were presented with two options:
- Do nothing.
- Implement TLS.
The former may have been our stance, but recently we have been receiving complaints that sent emails’ privacy has been violated when sent to certain mail providers. Rather than argue the point that email as an entire concept is insecure (after all there is nothing stopping cloud mail providers from reading your emails for account profiling and targeted advertising), the change is relatively minor our end and so we took the conscious decision to enable outgoing TLS when available, so as to remove the flag on mail sent to these cloud providers.
Are there better solutions available?
Yes! Even better, some of these solutions can be used today without any change on any infrastructure (except perhaps your mail client). I mentioned GPG above which is completely compatible with the existing infrastructure used around the world. You could even post your emails onto a public share using a service such as Dropbox with a link to it on Twitter and still only the recipient can read it. I must admit that usage of GPG is minimal despite its relative maturity and perhaps going into the reasons is not beneficial to the current discussion. There is also an encryption mechanism called S/MIME which has the same overall effect as GPG, even though its method is quite different. S/MIME reportedly is better supported by more mail clients, but requires purchasing a digital certificate and is thus potentially more expensive than GPG [update: this is incorrect. They can be obtained free of charge. See comments].
Added to GPG and S/MIME there are SPF and DKIM which can help verify servers’ authenticities (they do not encrypt). These technologies themselves are not well suited to our (the University’s) devolved environment as outlined in an excellent blog post by my predecessor Guy Edwards.
I hope this helps explain our thoughts on TLS encryption, and that our recent change to use encrypted communications is not a reaction to a mistake we discovered we were making. If there is anything you wish to add, please do add a comment, or contact the IT Services helpdesk for further information.